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Muhammad Ali Jinnah

Fathers name: Ponja Zuljana

Mothers name: Mithibai Jinnah

Country of Birth:


Year of birth: 1876

Places of Residence:


Brothers/sisters: Fatima Jinnah/ Ahemad Ali Jinnah

Studies: LAW

Profession: Lawyer

Early Life

Jinnah`s early life
Jinnah was the first of seven children of Jinnahbhai, a prosperous merchant. After being taught at home, Jinnah was sent to the Sind Madrasat al-Islam in 1887. Later he attended the Christian Missionary Society High School in Karachi, where at the age of 16 he passed the matriculation examination of the University of Bombay (now University of Mumbai). On the advice of an English friend, his father decided to send him to England to acquire business experience. Jinnah, however, had made up his mind to become a barrister. In keeping with the custom of the time, his parents arranged for an early marriage for him before he left for England.
Jinnah had initially avoided joining the All India Muslim League, founded in 1906, regarding it as too communal. Eventually, he joined the league in 1913 and became the president at the 1916 session in Lucknow. Jinnah emerged as the architect of the 1916 Lucknow Pact between the Congress and the League, bringing them together on most issues regarding self-government and presenting a united front to the British. Jinnah also played an important role in the founding of the All India Home Rule League in 1916. Along with political leaders Annie Besant and Tilak, Jinnah demanded "home rule" for India"”the status of a self-governing dominion in the Empire similar to Canada, New Zealand, and Australia. He headed the League's Bombay Presidency chapter. In 1918, Jinnah married his second wife Rattanbai Petit ("Ruttie"), 24 years his junior, and the fashionable young daughter of his personal friend Sir Dinshaw Petit of an elite Parsi family of Mumbai. Unexpectedly, great opposition to the marriage from Rattanbai's family and Parsi society erupted, as well as from orthodox Muslim leaders. Rattanbai defied her family and nominally converted to Islam, adopting (though never using) the name "Maryam""”resulting in a permanent estrangement from her family and Parsi society. The couple resided in Bombay, and frequently traveled across India and Europe. She bore Jinnah his only child, daught Dina, in 1919.
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Political Struggle and Achievements (till Pakistan)

In 1896, Jinnah joined the Indian National Congress, the largest Indian political organization. Like most of the Congress at the time, Jinnah counseled against outright independence, considering British influences on education, law, culture, and industry as beneficial to India. Moderate leader Gopal Krishna Gokhale became Jinnah's role model, with Jinnah proclaiming his ambition to become the "Muslim Gokhale." On January 25, 1910, Jinnah became a member on the sixty-member Imperial Legislative Council. The council had no real power or authority, and included a large number of un-elected pro-Raj loyalists and Europeans. Nevertheless, Jinnah proved instrumental in the passing of the Child Marriages Restraint Act, the legitimization of the Muslim wakf"”religious endowments"”and received an appointment to the Sandhurst committee, which helped establish the Indian Military Academy at Dehra Dun. During World War I, Jinnah joined other Indian moderates in supporting the British war effort, hoping that Indians would be rewarded with political freedoms.
Admiration for British political institutions and an eagerness to raise the status of India in the international community and to develop a sense of Indian nationhood among the peoples of India were the chief elements of his politics. At that time, he still looked upon Muslim interests in the context of Indian nationalism.

But, by the beginning of the 20th centurythe conviction had been growing among the Muslims that their interests demanded the preservation of their separate identity rather than amalgamation in the Indian nation that would for all practical purposes be Hindu. Largely to safeguard Muslim interests, the All-India Muslim League was founded in 1906. But Jinnah remained aloof from it. Only in 1913, when authoritatively assured that the league was as devoted as the Congress to the political emancipation of India, did Jinnah join the league. When the Indian Home Rule League was formed, he became its chief organizer in Bombay and was elected president of the Bombay branch.
Mohammad Ali Jinnah died in 1948 , in Pakistan because of tuberculosis.
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